Global Education

Teacher resources to encourage a global
perspective across the curriculum

Measuring Millennium Development Goals progress

Year level: 7-8

Students use real world data from the Millennium Development Goals targets and indicators to calculate fractions, decimals, percentages and ratios to determine progress.

Millennium Development Goals icons for all eight goals

Millennium Development Goals icons for all eight goals


Interdependence and globalisation, Social justice and human rights, Sustainable futures

Australian Curriculum links

Learning areas

Mathematics

Year 7

Express one quantity as a fraction of another, with and without the use of digital technologies (ACMNA155)

Round decimals to a specified number of decimal places (ACMNA156)

Connect fractions, decimals and percentages and carry out simple conversions (ACMNA157)

Find percentages of quantities and express one quantity as a percentage of another, with and without digital technologies (ACMNA158)

Recognise and solve problems involving simple ratios (ACMNA173)

Year 8

Solve problems involving the use of percentages, including percentage increases and decreases, with and without digital technologies (ACMNA187)

General capabilities

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and communication technology capability
  • Critical and creative thinking
     

Activity 1: What do the Millennium Development Goals measure?

Students determine the statistics needed to show progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals targets.

Preparation


Calculate the number of people in your class (rounding appropriately) who would represent the 45% of the world's population living in poverty in 1990 if the whole class represents the population of the world.
Express this as a fraction of 100 and in its simplest form.
Show this as a diagram (ie draw a rectangle 5 cm x 2 cm; divide it into 20 equal parts of 0.5 cm x 1 cm; then colour 9 parts).

Calculate the number of people in your class who represent the 22% of the world's population who were living in poverty in 2013. 
Express this as a fraction of 100 and in its simplest form.
Show this as a diagram.

Calculate the percentage difference between 1990 and 2013
Express this as a fraction of 100 and in its simplest form.

View
a film that depicts the world as a village of 100 people.

Record
the ideas you have gained about poverty and equality using the following Recalls, Insights, Question (RIQ) strategy.

3 recalls: list three facts.
2 insights: state two ways the material is relevant for you as an individual.
1 question: ask one question arising from the information and insights.

Examine infographics outlining progress on the United Nations Millennium Development Goals.
Explore multimedia material introducing the Millennium Development Goals at Caritas, Blueprint for a better world
Make a statement about the importance of the Millennium Development Goals being measurable.

Read the goals and some of their targets below and list the data you would need to calculate the progress for these targets. (You can check your answer by examining the Statistical Annex: Millennium Development Goals, Targets and Indicators, 2013.)
 

Table showing the eight graphics and statements for the Millennium Development Goals and selected targets

Millennium Development Goal 1 icon - eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
MDG 1 Eradicate poverty and hunger

Target 1.A: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1.25 a day

Target 1.C: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger

Millennium Development Goal 2 icon - achieve universal primary education
MDG 2 Achieve universal primary education

Target 2.A: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling

Millennium Development Goal 3 icon - promote gender equality and empower women
MDG 3 Promote gender equality and empower women

Target 3.A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015

Millennium Development Goal 4 icon - reduce child mortality
MDG4 Reduce child mortality

Target 4.A: Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate

Millennium Development Goal 5 icon - improve maternal health
MDG 5 Improve maternal health

Target 5.A: Reduce by three quarters the maternal mortality ratio

Millennium Development Goal 6 icon - combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
MDG 6 Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

Target 6.A: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS

Target 6.C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases

Millennium Development Goal 7 icon - ensure environmental sustainability
MDG 7 Ensure environmental sustainability

Target 7.C: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation

Millennium Development Goal 8 - global partnership for development
MDG 8 Global partnership for development

Target 8.B and 8.C: Address the special needs of least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and Small Island Developing States

Target 8.E: In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries

Target 8.F: In cooperation with the private sector, make available benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications

Discuss:

  • Which goal appears to require the biggest change?

Justify your answer using appropriate numbers, percentages and fractions.

Extension

Caritas, Poverty quiz (PPT, 3.9 MB)

Activity 2: Tracking the world's progress

Students use real world data from the Millennium Development Goals indicators to calculate percentages and ratios and to connect fractions, decimals and percentages of figures about the Millennium Development Goals.

Preparation


Use the following tables selected from the Statistical Annex: Millennium Development Goals, Targets and Indicators, 2013 to calculate statistics about the Millennium Development Goals.

Show
your understanding of billions by completing the second row in Table 1.

Table 1: Population of the world
 19901999200020052010
Population of the world in billions5.3266.516.92
Population of the world in millions    
Millennium Development Goal 1 icon - eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

MDG 1: Eradicate poverty and hunger

Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1.25 a day

Complete Table 2 with the following information:

  • Calculate the percentage improvement for 1999, 2005 and 2010 (do your calculation without digital technology and then check using digital technology).
  • State the percentage of the population living in poverty as a decimal. 
  • State the percentage of the population living in poverty as a fraction.
  • Calculate the number of people living below $1.25 per day for 1990, 1999, 2005 and 2010.
Table 2: Indicator 1.1 Population of developing world living below $1.25 purchasing power parity (PPP) per day
 1990200020052010
Percentage46.736.526.922.0
Percentage improvement    
Express percentage as a decimal    
Express percentage as a rounded simple fractionLess than ½   
Number of people in the world living in poverty (use Table 1)    
Millennium Development Goal 1 icon - eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

MDG 1: Eradicate poverty and hunger

Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger

Complete Table 3 with the following information:

  • Calculate the number of people who do not have the minimum amount of food required for 1990, 1999, 2005 (using the 2007–09 figures) and 2010.
  • Calculate the percentage improvement for 1999–01, 2007–09 and 2010–12 (without digital technology and then check using digital technology).
  • Calculate the percentage improvement needed to halve the percentage of people without enough food by 2015 (without digital technology and then check using digital technology).
  • State the percentage of the population who do not have the minimum amount of food to eat as a decimal.
  • State the percentage of the population who do not have the minimum amount of food to eat as a fraction.
Indicator 1.9 Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption
 1990–921999–012007–092010–12
Percentage18.615.012.912.5
Number of people without enough food    
Percentage improvement from previous year    
Percentage improvement for total period--- 
Express the percentage as a decimal--- 
Express the percentage as a rounded simple fraction    
Millennium Development Goal 2 icon - achieve universal primary education

MDG 2: Achieve universal primary education

Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full
course of primary schooling

Complete Table 4 with the following information:

  • Calculate the total percentage of children enrolled in primary school (by adding the percentages for boys and girls and dividing by 2) for 1990, 2000 and 2011 (without digital technology and then check using digital technology).
  • Calculate the difference between the percentage of boys and girls enrolled in primary school for 1990, 2000 and 2011 (without digital technology and then check using digital technology).
  • Calculate the percentage improvement for boys and girls in 2000 and 2011 (without digital technology and then check using digital technology).
  • Order the decimals from largest to smallest. Which group and when showed the most improvement?
  • Calculate the percentage improvement for boys and girls required to meet the goal of ALL boys and girls enrolling in primary school by 2015. Is it likely that we will meet Goal 2 (that all boys and girls will be enrolled in primary school by the end of 2015) with the current percentage improvement?
  • State the percentages as a decimal and a simple fraction. 
Indicator 2.1 Percentage of boys and girls in the world enrolled in primary education
 199020002010
BoysGirlsAllBoysGirlsAllBoysGirlsAll
Percentage of children enrolled in primary school86.277.5 87.481.5 92.190.3 
Total of children enrolled         
Difference between boys and girls enrolled         
Percentage improvement for boys, girls and all children---      
Order percentage improvement from smallest to largest---      
Calculate percentage improvement for boys, girls and all children to achieve 100%------   
Convert percentage to decimal fraction         
Convert percentage to simple fraction         
Millennium Development Goal 4 icon - reduce child mortality

MDG 4: Reduce child mortality

Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate

Complete Table 5 with the following information:

  • Calculate the under-five mortality rate using the whole world figure, developing regions and developed regions.
  • Calculate the fraction of improvement for each of the three regions for 1990–2000, 2000–12 and 1990–2012.
  • Order the fractions from largest to smallest. Which region made the best progress and when?
Indicator 4.1 The number of children who die before reaching the age of five per 1,000 live births (Under-five mortality rate).
 1990Target number to achieve reduction by two thirds2000Fraction improvement from 19902012Fraction improvement from 2000Fraction improvement from 1990
World87 73 50  
Developing regions97 80 55  
Developed regions15 10 6  
Millennium Development Goal 5 icon - improve maternal health

MDG 5: Improve maternal health

Reduce by three quarters the maternal mortality ratio

Complete Table 6 with the following information:

  • Calculate the maternal mortality ratio using the whole world figure, developing regions and developed regions.
  • Calculate the fraction of improvement for each of the three regions for 1990–2000, 2000–12 and 1990–2012.
  • Order them from largest to smallest. Which region made the best progress and when?
Indicator 5.1 Maternal deaths per 100,000 live births (Maternal mortality ratio)
 1990Target number to achieve reduction by two thirds2000Fraction improvement from 19902010Fraction improvement from 2000Fraction improvement from 1990
World400 320 210  
Developing regions440 350 240  
Developed regions26 17 16  
Millennium Development Goal 6 icon - combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

MDG 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS

Complete Table 7 with the following information:

  • Find the number of people newly infected by HIV for 2001 and 2011 (using the population figures of the world for 2000 and 2010).

Does the HIV incident rate indicate that one of the elements of Goal 6 (to halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS) is on target to be achieved?

Indicator 6.1 Number of new HIV infections per year per 100 people aged 15–49 (HIV incidence rates)
 2001Total number of people newly infected with HIV2011Total number of people newly infected with HIV
World0.08 0.06 
Millennium Development Goal 6 icon - combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

MDG 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases

Complete Table 8 with the following information:

  • Find the number of people newly infected with tuberculosis for 2002 and 2011 (using the population figures of the world for 1990, 2000 and 2010).

Do these indicate that one of the elements of Goal 6 (to halt and reverse the spread of 'other diseases') is on target to be achieved?

Table 8: Indicator 6.9 Number of new cases per 100,000 population, including HIV-infected (Incidence of tuberculosis
 1990Total number of people newly infected with tuberculosis2002Total number of people newly infected with tuberculosis2011Total number of people newly infected with tuberculosis
World147 148 125 
Millennium Development Goal 7 icon - ensure environmental sustainability

MDG 7: Ensure environmental sustainability

Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking
water and basic sanitation


Complete Table 9 with the following information:

  • Calculate the percentage of people without access to safe drinking water for the world, and for urban and rural areas.
  • Calculate what half of this percentage would be (ie what is required to achieve Goal 7, to 'halve the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water').
  • Calculate what fraction improvement was made between 1990 and 2011. 
  • Which region made the best progress and when?
  • Do these indicate that Goal 7 can be achieved by 2015?
  • Calculate the number of people without access to safe drinking water for each category in the above table (using the population figures of the world for 1990 – 5.32 billion and 2010 – 6 billion).
Table 9: Indicator 7.8 Percentage of population using an improved drinking water source
 19902011
TotalUrbanRuralTotalUrbanRural
World769562899681
Percentage of people living without safe drinking water      
Halve the percentage of people without safe drinking water      
Fraction improvement---   
Number of people without safe drinking water      

Extension

Explore these statistics through Gapminder World.
View a presentation from 2007 about rates of progress (8 minutes 15 seconds).
 

Activity 3: Comparing progress in regions across the world

Students use real world data from the Millennium Development Goals indicators to calculate percentages and ratios and to connect fractions, decimals and percentages of figures about the Millennium Development Goals for different regions of the world.

Preparation

Complete Table 10 with the following information:

  • Calculate the percentage improvement of the population living with insufficient food for each region of the world.
  • Write '1' in the final column of the region that made the most improvement.
  • Write '14' in the final column of the region that made the least improvement.
  • Complete the figures and order the regions from most to least improvement in the final column.
  • Make an observation contrasting progress in two regions of the world.
Table 10: Indicator 1.9 Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (Percentage)
 1990–922010–12Percentage improvementOrder of percentage of improvement from best to worst
World18.612.5  
Developing regions23.214.9  
Northern Africa3.82.7  
Sub-Saharan Africa32.226.8  
Latin America and the Caribbean14.68.3  
Eastern Asia20.811.5  
Eastern Asia excluding China10.411.7  
Southern Asia26.817.6  
Southern Asia excluding India26.417.8  
South-Eastern Asia29.610.9  
Western Asia6.610.1  
Oceania13.612.1  
Caucasus and Central Asia13.97.4  
Developed regions1.81.3  

Source: Statistical Annex: Millennium Development Goals, Targets and Indicators, 2013

Complete Table 11 with the following information:

  • Calculate the difference in the enrolment of boys and girls for each region of the world.
  • Write '1' in the fourth column for 1990 and 2011 for the regions that had the least difference between boys and girls enrolled in primary school. 
  • Write '14' in the fourth column for 1990 and 2011 for the regions that had the most difference between boys and girls enrolled in primary school. 
  • Complete the figures and order the regions from least to most difference in the fourth columns for 1990 and 2011.
  • Make an observation contrasting the change in enrolment of boys and girls in two regions. 
  • Share your statement with the rest of the class for them to check.
Table 11: Indicator 2.1 Net enrolment ratio in primary education
 Boys 1990Girls 1990DifferenceOrder from least to most differenceBoys 2011Girls 2011DifferenceOrder from least to most difference
World86.277.5  92.190.3  
Developing regions84.674.5  91.589.4  
Northern Africa87.971.0  99.195.4  
Sub-Saharan Africa58.047.2  79.275.2  
Latin America and the Caribbean88.886.4  94.995.6  
Eastern Asia99.894.1  97.998  
Eastern Asia excluding China96.997.6  97.597.9  
Southern Asia82.865.1  94.191.6  
Southern Asia excluding India74.757.4  82.775.5  
South-Eastern Asia94.291.6  95.196.1  
Western Asia87.678.4  94.589.6  
Oceania73.565.2  --  
Caucasus and Central Asia--  95.193.9  
Developed regions96.095.9  97.197.5  

Source: Statistical Annex: Millennium Development Goals, Targets and Indicators, 2013

Activity 4: Evaluating progress

Students review some statements from the latest Millennium Development Goals report and interpret them from different perspectives.

Discuss:

  • Which statistics did you find the most surprising? Why?

Create a three-column table showing which Millennium Development Goals have been achieved, are on track to be achieved or require more effort.

Create a graphic (you may like to use a free infographic tool) to show progress as described in the following statements:

"The world reached the poverty reduction target five years ahead of schedule. In developing regions, the proportion of people living on less than $1.25 a day fell from 47 per cent in 1990 to 22 per cent in 2010. About 700 million fewer people lived in conditions of extreme poverty in 2010 than in 1990."
"The proportion of undernourished people in developing regions decreased from 23.2 per cent in 1990–1992 to 14.9 per cent in 2010–2012. Given reinvigorated efforts, the target of halving the percentage of people suffering from hunger by 2015 appears to be within reach. Still, one in eight people in the world today remain chronically undernourished."
"Between 2000 and 2011, the number of children out of school declined by almost half – from 102 million to 57 million. However, progress in reducing the number of children out of school has slowed considerably over time. Stalled progress means that the world is unlikely to meet the target of universal primary education by 2015."
"From 1990 to 2011, 1.9 billion people gained access to a latrine, flush toilet or other improved sanitation facility. Despite these accomplishments, more rapid progress is needed to meet the MDG target."

Write a description of progress on one of the Millennium Development Goals from the perspective of:

  • the Australian Government
  • a tourist operator
  • a person living in poverty in a rural area of a developing country.

Extension

The following websites have teaching materials and information about the Millennium Development Goals:

Source: Thanks to Caritas, Silvana Pavia, Fadi Elbarbar and St Monica's College, Epping
 

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