# Global Education

##
Teacher resources to encourage a global

perspective across the curriculum

# Delivering water

### Year level: 9-10

### Issue: Water and sanitation

Students calculate their own water use and the water use, distances and surface areas involved in accessing water and volumes of various water storage containers for people in developing countries.

**
In a health clinic in Vietnam, water is pumped into a storage tank and distributed by pipes using the water pressure.**
Photo by AusAID

Sustainable futures

## Australian Curriculum links

### Learning areas

#### Mathematics

##### Year 9

Calculate the areas of composite shapes (ACMMG216)

Calculate the surface area and volume of cylinders and solve related problems (ACMMG217)

Solve problems involving the surface area and volume of right prisms (ACMMG218)

##### Year 10

Solve problems involving surface area and volume for a range of prisms, cylinders and composite solids (ACMMG242)

### General capabilities

- Literacy
- Numeracy
- Information and communication technology capability
- Critical and creative thinking

### Cross-curriculum priorities

- Sustainability

## Activity 1: Daily water use

###### Students calculate their personal water use to gain insights into the relationship between access and water use.

### Preparation

- Household water bills
- Measuring tape (trundle wheel or laser beam)
- Buckets to carry 10 litres

**Calculate** your water use with your household's last water bill.

- What is your household's total water use?
- How many days does the bill cover?
- How many people live in your house?
- Calculate the average use per day in your household.
- Calculate the average use per day per person in your household.

**Match** the facts with their statements.

Fact | Statement |
---|---|

1.9 billion | Total of world's population living in rural areas without safe drinking water in 2011 |

636 million | Number of litres of water used for drinking, washing and flushing by the average Australian each day |

180 million | Number of people who have gained access to a latrine, flush toilet or other improved sanitation facility between 1990 and 2011 |

660,000 | Number of people who rely on surface water (rivers and lakes) to meet their daily water needs |

250 | Number of people per day who need to gain access to sanitation by end of 2015 to achieve the MDG target of halving the number of people without sanitation |

Sources: Development Goals: Millennium Development Goals Report 2013 and Australian Government Department of the Environment

**Calculate** how long it will take you to carry 5 litres of water 5 kilometres and 500 metres. **Mark **out 50 metres and put 5 litres of water in a container. **Carry** the container 50 metres and record the time it takes you to walk the 50 metres. **
Find** the average time of four lengths, either on your own or as a group of four.

**Calculate**how many times would you have to walk the 50 metres to walk 500 metres.

**Multiply**your time by this.

**Calculate**how many times would you have to walk the 50 metres to walk 5 kilometres.

**Multiply**your time by this.

**Calculate**how much time would be saved by having a shorter walk.

Name | Time taken to carry water 50 m | Time taken to carry water 500 m (multiply by ?) | Time taken to carry water 5 km (multiply by ?) | Difference between time taken to carry water 500 m and 5 km |
---|---|---|---|---|

Average |

**Discuss:**

- Are there any other factors to consider when comparing the time for 500 metres and 5 kilometres?

## Activity 2: Length and breadth

###### Students calculate surface areas of excavated pathways for various designs.

**Calculate** the total surface area of the pathway to each village from the water source if the pathway is 1 metre wide and 6 centimetres deep.

Village | Length of path (L) | Width of path (W) | Depth of path (D) | Total surface area of path |
---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 100 cm | 6 cm | ||

2 | 100 cm | 6 cm | ||

3 | 100 cm | 6 cm | ||

4 | 100 cm | 6 cm |

**Calculate** the total surface area of the ditch for the pipe to be laid to each village if the ditch is 15 centimetres wide and 30 centimetres deep.

Village | Length of path (L) | Width of path (W) | Depth of path (D) | Total surface area of path |
---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 15 cm | 30 cm | ||

2 | 15 cm | 30 cm | ||

3 | 15 cm | 30 cm | ||

4 | 15 cm | 30 cm |

**Calculate** the area of the footpath around the tank (ie the area around the inner shapes in the diagrams below). First, calculate the total area. Next, find the area of the base of the tank. Then subtract the area of the base from the total area.

Option | Area formulas | Total area | Area of tank base | Area of footpath |
---|---|---|---|---|

Own suggestion | ||||

Own suggestion |

**Make** an observation about the difference between the smallest and largest options.

## Activity 3: Volume of the water tank

###### Students calculate the volume of various shaped water tanks to determine the shape that provides the greatest storage capacity and smallest surface area.

**Use** the dimensions in the table below to calculate the volume and surface area of the various shaped tanks. **Use** the blank row beneath each shape to calculate the dimensions of a similar shaped tank that will fit on a 3-metre square base and hold 20,000 litres.

Shape of tank | Formula | Dimensions | Volume | Surface area | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Radius | Height | Width | Length | Cubic metres | Litres | | ||

Cylinder | 240 cm | 380 cm | ||||||

20,000 L | ||||||||

Cone | 460 cm | 500 cm | ||||||

Sphere | 145 cm | |||||||

Cube | 300 cm | |||||||

Square pyramid | 200 cm | 240 cm | ||||||

Rectangular prism | 270 cm | 160 cm | 250 cm | |||||

Triangular prism | 350 cm | 220 cm | 403 cm | |||||

Rectangular prism with half cylinder on each end | 270 cm | 160 cm | 250 cm | |||||

Cube with a square pyramid lid | 270 cm | 200 cm | ||||||

Cylinder with a cone lid | 360 cm | 280 cm | 420 cm | |||||

Own composite shape |

**Make** an observation about which shape gives the best volume for surface area.

What shape would you recommend and why?

**Make** an observation about how improving access to water would reduce poverty.

Source: Thanks to Caritas, Silvana Pavia, Fadi Elbarbar and St Monica's College, Epping. See school case study Walking for water.

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Last updated: 02-05-2014